Hysteroscopy plays a vital role in infertility investigations. It identifies possible intrauterine changes that interfere with implantation and/or embryo growth. It also evaluates various treatment methods in restoring a typical endometrial environment. Compared to hysterosalpingogram (HSG) and transvaginal ultrasonography, hysteroscopy can accurately diagnose certain abnormalities.
Hysteroscopy identifies the presence of extra growth-like lesions such as uterine fibroids, endometrial polyps, intrauterine adhesions, which are known causes of infertility as they interfere with proper embryo implantation and growth. Vaginal ultrasound helps infertility assessment but fails to detect these abnormalities. Due to its advantages, hysteroscopy has been identified as a definite method to examine, evaluate, assess the uterine cavity, and diagnose any associated abnormalities. It allows complete, accurate identification of intrauterine abnormalities that might negatively affect endometrial receptivity and implantation. Moreover, a diagnostic hysteroscopy prior to an IVF treatment might improve the implantation and the success rate.